Main Article Content
<p>High Intense-sweeteners (HIS) are commonly used as a sugar substitutes or sugar alternatives and provide sweet without calories. HIS are in high demands due to its multiple advantages including assisting people in losing weight or avoiding obesity and assisting diabetics to control their blood sugar level. The first known intense-sweetener is Saccharine that was discovered in the year 1878. Since then scientists discovered several other intensive sweeteners that are sweater than sucrose with zero calorie. Some discovered sweeteners are Plants extract (Stevoil glycosides, and Mogrosides), semi-synthetic peptides (Aspartame, Neotame, and sucralose), and synthetic chemicals. (Saccharine, Acesulfame-K, and Cyclamate).</p><p>These High intensive sweeteners have been approved as safe for applications<sup> </sup> in foods, beverages, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals products by Food and Drug administration (FDA) <sup></sup> in United States and by other similar agencies in other countries <sup></sup>. The levels of these non-nutritive high intensive sweeteners used in foods, beverages, dietary supplements, and pharmaceutical products are based on the approved daily intake (ADI) by FDA and by other safety authorities worldwide. This ADI level is 100 fold lower than the safe dose demonstrated in laboratory studies. It is estimated that the global demand of HIS is exceeding 9.0 billion dollars and growing. The only HIS that is declining in global market is the old discovered sweetener Saccharine.</p>
High-Intensity Sweeteners. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2014.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Food Standards Australia New Zealand: Aspartame what it is and why it's used in our food. 2008.
Generally recognized As Safe (GRAS). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2014.
Wood Jr, HB, et. al. Stevioside. I. The structure of the glucose moieties. J. Org. Chem. Washington. 1955;20:875-883.
Fuiita H and Edshiro T. Safety and utilization of stevia sweetener. The Food Industry. 1979; 22(22):1-8
Thomas JE, and Glade MJ. Stevia: it’s not just about calories. The Open Obesity Journal. 2010;2:101-109
GRAS Notice (GRN) No. 461
Dharmanda S. Luo han guo: sweet fruit used as sugar substitute and medicinal herb. Institute for Traditional Medicine. 2013
Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, et al. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 2007;37:629–727.
Yagasaki M, Hashimoto S-i. Synthesis and application of dipeptides; current status and perspectives. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2008;81(1):13-22.
The potential intake of phenylalanine that may result from use of neotame as a general- purpose sweetener does not pose any safety concern. FDA comments in Federal Register 2002; 67(131):45300-45310
Nofre C, Tinti JM. Neotame: discovery, properties, utility. Food Chem. 2000;69(3):245-257
Ma J, Bellon M, Wishart JM, Young R, Blackshaw LA, Jones K L, Horowitz M, Rayner CK. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretion hormone release in healthy subjects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009; 296(4): G735– G739.
Grotz VL, Munro IC. An overview of the safety of sucralose. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2009;55(1):1-5.
Food Approves Sucralose. FDA Approves Sucralose. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. April 1, 1998.
Renwick AG. Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners. Food Additives and Contaminants. 1990;7(4):463-75.
Moynihan P, Petersen PE. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutrition. 2004;7(1A):201-26.
Facts about Sucralose. American Dietetic Association. 2006.
Wiebe N, Padwal R, Field C, Marks S, Jacobs R, Tonelli M. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes. Bmc Medicine. 2011;9.
Saccharin warning. AP via Telegraph-Herald. 1973.
EPA Removes Saccharin from Hazardous Substances Listing. 2010.
Karstadt ML. Testing needed for acesulfame potassium, an artificial sweetener. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006;114(9):A516-A.
Kellen RH. CYCLAMATE SWEETENERS. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association. 1977;237(15):1558-.
Serra-Majem L, Bassas L, Garcia-Glosas R, Ribas L, Ingles C, Casals I, et al. Cyclamate intake and cyclohexylamine excretion are not related to male fertility in humans. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2003;20(12):1097-104.
Mitchell H. Sweeteners and sugar alternative in foods technology. Oxford UK Wiley Blackwel. 2006;p.94
Swithers SE, Davidson TL. A role for sweet taste: Calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats. Behavioral Neuroscience. 2008;122(1):161-73.
Food and Drug Administration. Food labeling: health claims; dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental carries. Federal Register. 2006;71 (60): 15559–15564.
Rizkalla SW, Luo J, Wils D, Bruzzo F, Slama G. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a new hydrogenated starch hydrolysate in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2002;28(5):385-90.
Hartel B, Graubaum HJ, Schneider B. Influence of intense sweetener solutions on insulin- secretion and blood-glucose level. Ernahrungs-Umschau. 1993;40(4):152-5.