Main Article Content
Objective: Use of artificial tanning devices that emit UV radiation, such as tanning lamps and tanning beds, has become increasingly popular in the world. A tanning bed is a device emitting ultraviolet radiation used to produce a cosmetic tan. A number of studies have been conducted evaluating the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma after exposure to sunlamps and/or sunbeds. Although an excess risk of nonmelanoma skin cancers might be predicted from this exposure, little epidemiologic data exist.
Material and Methods: In this study the leakage electromagnetic fields around artificial tanning devices were measured in Sun Club Beauty Salon and Solarium in Ankara, Turkey and evaluated in terms of standards.
Results: It has been observed that operators exposed to low ELF and RF fields with respect to general public and occupational exposure limits. However, global health experts have moved use of sunbeds and exposure to ultraviolet radiation (including sun exposure) to the highest risk category for causing cancer.
Conclusion: They now join agents such as tobacco, asbestos and benzene in being classed as "carcinogenic to humans" whereas before they were classed as "probably carcinogenic". Precautions should therefore be taken to minimise the exposed fields.
Coskun S, Balabanli B, Canseven A, Seyhan N. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Magnetic Fields on Oxidative Parameters In vivo. Neurochemical Research. 2009;34(2):238-43.
Canseven AG, Coskun S, Seyhan N. Effects of various extremely low frequency magnetic fields on the free radical processes, natural antioxidant system and respiratory burst system activities in the heart and liver tissues. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 2008;45(5):326-31.
Akay C, Canseven AG, Erdem O, Seyhan N. Effect of intermittent and continuous exposure to electromagnetic field on calcium and magnesium levels in serum, brain, liver and kidney tissues. Toxicology Letters. 2007;172:S112-S.
Tohumoglu G, Canseven AG, Cevik A, Seyhan N. Formulation of ELF magnetic fields' effects on malondialdehyde level and myeloperoxidase activity in kidney using genetic programming. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 2007;86(1):1-9.
Canseven AG, Seyhan N, Mirshahidi S, Imir T. Suppression of natural killer cell activity on Candida stellatoidea by a 50 Hz magnetic field. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2006;25(2):79-85.
Guler G, Seyhan N, Aricioglu A. Effects of static and 50 Hz alternating electric fields on superoxide dismutase activity and TBARS levels in guinea pigs. General Physiology and Biophysics. 2006;25(2):177-93.
Gueler G, Tuerkoezer Z, Seyhan N. Electric field effects on guinea pig serum: The role of free radicals. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2007;26(3):207-23.
Gueler G, Turkozer Z, Tomruk A, Seyhan N. The protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on electric field-induced hepatic oxidative stress. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2008;84(8):669-80.
Gueler G, Tuerkoezer Z, Ozgur E, Seyhan N. Antioxidants alleviate electric field-induced effects on lung tissue based on assays of heme oxygenase-1, protein carbonyl content, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and hydroxyproline. Science of the Total Environment. 2009;407(4):1326-32.
Sirav B. Radio Frequency Radiation Sources, Standards / Guidelines of Countries and International Organizations, Turkey’s Situation and Radiation Calculation of a Pilot Region, MSc thesis, Gazi University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Biophysics, (MSc thesis with the supervision of Prof. Dr. Nesrin Seyhan and co-supervisor Asst. Prof. Dr. Ayse G. Canseven), 2001, Ankara TURKEY.
Sirav B, Seyhan N. Radio frequency radiation (RFR) from TV and radio transmitters at a pilot region in Turkey. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 2009;136(2):114-7.
Sirav Aral B. Effects of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz Rad(1)io frequency radiation on blood-brain barrier, PhD thesis, Gazi University, Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Biophysics, (PhD thesis with the supervision of Prof. Dr. Nesrin Seyhan), 2008, Ankara TURKEY.
Ozgur E. Variation in Mobile Phone Radiation with Voices of Different Frequencies and Strengths, Effects on Tissue Hydroxyproline Level. Gazi University Health Sciences Institute Biophysics Department, (MSc thesis with the supervision of Dr. Göknur Güler), 2006, Ankara TURKEY.
Tuysuz MZ. Determination of Mobile Phone Exposure Based RF Dosimetry by using FDTD Methods, MSc thesis, Gazi University Health Sciences Institute Biophysics Department, (MSc thesis with the supervision of Dr. Canseven A.G.), 2007, Ankara TURKEY
Budak GG, Budak B, Oetuerk GG, Muluk NB, Apan A, Seyhan N. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in rabbits. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2009;73(3):429-36.
SCENIHR Report. European Commission – Health & Consumer Protection Directorate – General, SCENIHR – Possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on Human Health, 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scenihr/docs/scenihr_o_007.pdf Last accessed on 10 August 2009.
Bernhardt JH. Electrosmog, cellular phones, sunbeds etc. -- adverse health effects from radiation? Health aspects of non-ionizing radiation, Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2005 Jan;48(1):63-75.
ICNIRP. Guidelines for Limiting exposure to time varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (Up to 300 GHz), International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Health Physics. 1998, 74(4): 494-522.
ICTA. Information and Communication Technologies Authority, 2001, Turkey, www.tk.gov.tr Last accessed on 10 August 2009.
IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 80, Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields, 2002, IARC Press, Lyon, France.
Kheifets L, Shimkhada R. Childhood Leukemia and EMF: Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement, 2005, 7:S51-S59.
Health Physics Society Report, Ultraviolet radiation and public health, Feb 2007; http://www.hps.org/documents/ultraviolet_ps011-1.pdf.
IARC Working Group. The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review. Int J Cancer 2006; 120: 1116–22
Seddon JM, Gragoudas ES, Glynn RJ, Egan KM, Albert DM, Blitzer PH. HOST FACTORS, UV-RADIATION, AND RISK OF UVEAL MELANOMA - A CASE-CONTROL STUDY. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1990;108(9):1274-80.
El Ghissassi F, Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, Bouvard V, et al. A review of human carcinogens - Part D: radiation. Lancet Oncology. 2009;10(8):751-2.
Armstrong BK, Kricker A. The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B-Biology. 2001;63(1-3):8-18.
Sinha RP, Hader DP. UV-induced DNA damage and repair: a review. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. 2002;1(4):225-36.
Nita S. Agar, Gary M. Halliday , Ross StC. Barnetson,Honnavara N. Ananthaswamy, Mark Wheeler, and Alexandra M. Jones. PNAS April 6, 2004;101(14):4954-59.
Fisher GJ, Wang ZQ, Datta SC, Varani J, Kang S, Voorhees JJ. Pathophysiology of premature skin aging induced by ultraviolet light. New England Journal of Medicine. 1997;337(20):1419-28.